Shem Women's Group - empowering Tibetan women and their communities through grassroots development

Reports

Solar Cooker Project for Asyid and Duoca Villages
Project Manager: Drolma Tso (Delores)

project manager

to improve villagers’living conditions, reduce the heavy burden on women, and increase girls’school attendance.

Asia Foundation funded this project

Drolmatso is from Axi Village, Ruorgai County, Aba Tibetan Autonomous prefecture, Sichuan Province, and China. Currently ,she is working as a project consultant for Shokay International Group(SIG) in Xining City, Qinghai Province.

What? To supply 244 solar cookers to 244 households for Asyid and Duoca Villages, the main goal of this project is to lighten local women’s burden, and provide education access to local girls. Overall this project aims to improve local people’s living condition.
Who? 244 nomadic households are from Asyid and Duoca Villages in Ruorgai County, Aba Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China.
Photos of Project Implementation

01
It is a rainy day and the trucks arrive in Duoca and Asyid Villages late that afternoon. There were problems with the truck tires on the way to Ruorgai County.
02
Women from Asyid village are waiting to take the solar cookers from the trucks at the gate of their village leaders, while others are discussing where they should place the solar cookers.
03
Duoca Villagers start to take the solar cookers and its component from the trucks.
04
Duoca villagers are taking solar cookers from the trucks. Skilled workers from the solar cooker factory instructed them on how they should carry the solar cookers.
picture 2
Duoca villagers are displaying the solar cookers and their components on the ground before they are distributed.07
This young man was told by their leaders to count the components of the solar cookers to make sure there are enough for each household. 08
Asyid villagers are about to finish taking the solar cookers from the truck. 09
Asyid villagers are taking the solar cookers to their own homes after the village leader and I distributed them.

10
This is an Asyid villager and she is planning to take her solar cooker home.

11
The skilled workers from the solar cooker factory taught the villagers how to set up and use the solar cookers.

Project Summary
Project Title: Solar Cooker Project for Asyid and Duoca Villages

Project Goal: Overall this project aims to improve local people’s living condition including lightening local women’s burden, and providing education access to local girls. In addition, this project provides following benefits:
a) Reduce women’s burden and save their times.
b) Provide more education access to children.
c) Help students to improve scores on their exams.
d) Improve health and reduce indoor pollution.

Location of this Project
Askyid Village and Duoca Village are located in Askyid Township in Ruorgai County, Aba Tibetan Autonomous prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. Askyid Village is 9 kilometers from the Duoca Village. Both Askyid Village and Duoca Village are 596 kilometers from Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province, China.

Total beneficiaries
This project directly benefits around 1950 local people from 244 households from Asyid and Duoca Villages

Implementation organization/individual
Project manager, Drolmatso, Luotse and Suolang Duoji (the main leaders of Duoca and Asyid Villages), and Shem Women’s Group.

Contact Group: Shem Women’s Group

Funds received: Source, Amount, and Date received
The Asia Foundation gave 36, 340 rmb on 12th of May 2008.

Details of project activities
Original project activities

a)Hold a meeting to discuss the needs of Askyid and Duoca Villages and gather related information .

b)Hold a meeting with local people and choose the 278 poorest families in these two villages based on how many livestock they have and how many people are in their families. Other factors considered include: how much debt each family, how many students they support, how much money they borrow from the bank each year, and how many people are able to work in each family. Every single villager agreed that the chosen families were very poor and that they have a right to get the solar cookers .

c)Call the company (Liuji solar cooker factory) and ask about the price of the solar cookers .

d)Write project proposal.

e)Funds are received.

f)local contribution from the families who will get the solar cookers.

g)Solar cookers will be purchased by two of Askyid Village and Duoca Village’s leaders and the manager of this project. The two leaders are Solang Duoji and Luotsi.

h)Hold a meeting with the local people to discuss project implementation.

i)We will buy the Solar Cookers from the Liuji Solar Cooker Factory in Gansu Province. Also this factory will send some of the skilled workers to Askyid and Duoca Village to show the villagers how to use the solar cookers appropriately.

j)Interview local people and take photos (Women, men and children)

k)Write final report and submit it to the donor with receipts and photos.

Activities realized in the framework of the project

a)September, 2007 Drolmatso held a meeting with local people and discussed their needs.

b)October, 2007 Drolmatso designed solar cooker proposal according to local people’s needs.

c)In December, 2007 Drolmatso completed the solar cooker project proposal.

d)On the 12th of May 2008 the project was funded by the Asia Foundation.

e)On the 20th of June 2008, Drolmatso contacted Liuji solar cooker factory and asked again about the prices of the solar cookers. The leader of the factory told her that the price of the solar cookers increased because of petrol price and each of the solar cooker’s component prices had become higher than they were last year. Then she bargained with the factory leader, but he told her that they could only sell her the cookers at the price of 195 rmb each, including transportation fee. Finally Drolmatso asked that factory to prepare solar cookers for her project.

f)On May, 12th of 2008 Drolmatso received money from Asia Foundation.

g)Drolmatso contacted the two leaders of Asyid and Duoca Villages and discussed about the implementation of the project.

h)Drolmatso waited until 5th of July during that time she tried to contact local people by telephone, but could not reach the village due to downed phone lines.  Therefore Drolmatso decided to ask for a few days from her work to go home from Xining, the place where she is working, to see what she should do to implement this project. When she arrived home all the villagers had moved to their pastures and she had to ride motorcycles and horses to find village leaders to talk about the implementation of this project. Then they decided a time for implementation.

i)Drolmatso called the factory and arranged to purchase the solar cookers on 7th July, 2008. However, because of the traffic problem solar cookers arrived to Asyid and Duoca Villages on 8th of July.

j)On 8th July 2008, both of Duoca and Asyid villagers came to villages from their pastures. Then Drolmatso and the two village leaders distributed the solar cookers to poor families among all the households.

k)On 8th July, Drolmatso took pictures of project implementation.

l)On 9th July, she interviewed the local people and also took pictures

Project Finance

Original Budget

Actual Budget

Recei
pt #
Item Donor
Contri
btuion in rmb
Local Contri
bution in rmb
Shem Contri
bution
in rmb
Total
in rmb
Donor Contri
bution in rmb
Local Contri
bution
in rmb
Shem Contri
bution in rmb
Total in rmb Differe
nce(Bet
ween original and ac
tual bu
dgets)
in
rmb
#1 Solar
cookers (includ
ing tran
spor
tation fee)
36,140 13,900 0 50,0
40
353
80
*12,2
00
0 47580 +760
#2 Project manage
ment expen
ses
200 100 0 300 200 100 0 300 0
  Project manage
ment payment
0 0 500 500 0 0 500 500 0
Total   36,3
40
14,0
00
500 50,8
40
355
80
12,3
00
500 483
80
+246
0

Note

1. In the original budget I planned to buy 278 solar cookers, each costing 180 rmb. In the actual budget each solar cooker costs 195 rmb. I received 3, 6340 rmb from Asia Foundation and 12,200 rmb from local people. The total funds were 48,340 rmb, and we bought 244 solar cookers, still there is 760 rmb left from donor contribution and I was not able to buy solar cookers with this amount of money because there is no enough space for putting these solar cookers in the trucks. And if I hire another truck for these solar cookers, then it is a big waste of money because we need to pay the same amount of money for the transportation fee.

*First as the original budget I planned to buy 278 solar cookers, so it means I had to collect 13900rmb from 278 households. However, in the actual budget I collected 12200rnb from 244 households and each family paid 50rmb for each solar cooker.

List of Recipients

recipient 1recipient2

recipient 3recipient 4

recipient 3recipient 4

Difficulties and lesson learned
Delay

There were two reasons for delaying the project when the funds arrived. Firstly, I couldn’t implement the project right way because I was not able to contact my local people because of the earthquake in Aba Prefecture. After the earthquake there are were phone signals in my hometown, and I couldn’t contact local people by phone. The second reason is that I couldn’t ask for many days to leave from my work. I knew it would take a long time if I directly went home and gathered local people, since nomadic communities often move to their own pastures during the milking seasons. It is really hard to gather them because of the distance and the inconvenient transportation. Therefore I waited for about two months, but still I couldn’t contact them. Then I had to take off days from my work and went home to implement the project.

Difficulties
a) Communications: my hometown is located in Aba Prefecture; since the unfortunate earthquake happened there we did not have phone signals. I encountered many difficulties contacting local people. I tried several times a day to call many of my local people, but there were no replies at all. The reason I was waiting is that I knew this period of time is milking season for these local people and all of them had moved to different pastures to herd their livestock. Even though if I went directly home, I knew it would be very hard to gather local people together and it would take long time to gather them because of the poor transportation and the long distance. I waited, but did not receive any replies from local people, therefore I decided to ask 8 days off from my NGO to implement this project. Once I got home, as I thought, these local people moved to their own pastures. So I had to use two days to contact two village leaders by riding motorcycles and horses to find their pastures. We encountered some dangerous situations, for example, my father and I were attacked by dogs while we were looking for the Asyid village leader’s tent. Within two days I contacted the local people, and then they gathered the rest of the local people for me after that day.

b) Financial: I wrote in my original budget the prices of the solar cookers as 180 rmb. As the price of the materials increased this year, each solar cooker cost 195 rmb. It made some difficulties for selecting local households again, but in the end with village leaders’ guidance we did it.

c) Weather: It rained for whole day when we distributed the solar cookers to local people, and most of villagers’ clothes were wet after they finished taking the solar cookers from the truck. The weather made some difficulties of taking the solar cookers from truck, sometimes we had to stop for a while when the rain was really heavy. However, the all of the villagers were really enthusiastic to continue. Finally we finished in late afternoon.

Lessons learned
I learned that it is really important to contact local people well before the implementation and I realized the importance of doing more research on the current prices of items. The prices would change rapidly no matter you contacted the factories before or not, just like what happen to the price of the solar cookers this time.

Interviews

interview 1                                                       

Tashi Droji is forty years old, he is from Asyid village and there are thirteen members in his family. He received one solar cooker this time. He said he has a very big family, but all the women from his family have to spend their times to collect fuel for most of the day. Now he is in the village and sending children to schools as the government rules, but many of his granddaughters were taken to the pastures to help their mothers to collect yak dung since they were great helpers. He also said some of his granddaughters were with him now, they also often have to spend their study times to help him to collect yak dung. He is saying, however from now the situation might be different since this solar cooker would save much time for both women and children. And they would have more time to relax or study.

interview 2
Limatso is from Duoca village and she is thirty five years old. There are four people in her family, her two daughters and her mother. Her family only owns 15 yaks, and she is saying this many yaks cannot supply yak dung for her family during the whole year. Therefore she and two of her daughters have to get up early to go to very long distances to collect yak dung or they have to ask rich families to give yak dung for them. Then they carry the yak dung on their backs to the top of mountains to dry it. Now she is saying they really have to use much of their labor and time, but this time they are really happy and lucky to get this solar cooker. She sent many thanks to the warm-hearted donors.

interview 3
Cuoga is fifty years old. There are four people in her family; both her husband and her thirty-year-old daughter are disabled. They became disabled due to polluted water in the spring nearby their village. Her husband cannot stand by himself and her daughter cannot do anything to help her. Her son became monk when he was really young, and now he is in the monastery. Therefore Cuoga is the only one to manage the family; she often gets help from the local people. This time she receives one solar cooker, she is saying thank you very much for always helping me and she thinks this will save her time. She was about to cry and once again said thank you very much to the Asia Foundation.

interview
She is from Asyid village, she has four children. She said she wishes she had sent her daughters to school now that she sees they have to collect yak dung and also do endless housework for their whole life. But at that time because of the living condition and labors, she was not able to do so. Now she is encouraging many of the villagers to send their daughters to school. She knows if they are not sent to school, then they have to spend their lives by collecting yak dung and doing housework. She is saying she hopes these solar cookers will help them change the situation and send more girls to schools.

interview 5
Oji is from Duoca Village, he is a leader from this village. He says this is the first time they received such things from foreign donors and he thinks they are really lucky. Also he says he will manage to keep these solar cookers well in the future. He said, “I don’t know how to show our appreciation to the generous donors now, but I am sure we will pray for them to have a wonderful life. From the bottom of our hearts we are really appreciative, once again thanks a lot”.

interview 6
Gengrang ji is from Duoca village, she is sixty-one years old. She is a childless woman. She said thank you very much to these kind donors. She said, “I am a widow and I often work for other rich families to survive, but now I am getting older and I have to stop my work and chant scriptures for the next life. I think the solar cooker will be really helpful for me to save my time and labor. Once again thank you very much.”

Letter of appreciation
a) Letter of appreciation from Duroca Village

thank you letter 1

Translation of the letter of appreciation from Duoca Village.

Dear The Asia Foundation,
We received the solar cookers which you donated to us. This area is a place where all of the villagers are nomads, so we don’t have trees and other materials for fuel except yak dung. As a result many of the women from this village have to spend their time to collect yak dung during the whole year. The exciting thing for us now is that we can get solar cookers from kind donors like you. Therefore we villagers want to say thank you very much from the bottom of our hearts. Indeed we want to offer you Khada to say thanks, but we do not have that chance. So once again thank you very much.

Duoca villagers

2008.7.8

b) Letter of appreciation from Asyid Village

thank you letter 2

Translation of the letter of appreciation from Asyid village

Dear the Asia Foundation,
Today is a happy day for us since we received the solar cookers from kind donors. For this great help we villagers want to say thanks, but we don’t have that chance because of the distance and the times. So the only thing we can do is to send you this message and say thank you very much. Once again thank you very much for your great help. In the end we hope everything goes well with you. We will always remember you and pray for you to have good luck on everything.

Asyid villagers

2008.7.8

Receipts

# 1

7

#2 These tickets include roundtrip costs to the project site and back to Xining, so the total cost is 230rmb.

8

receipt 2receipt 3

recipient 5receipt 5

receipt 5

Original Proposal
Project Location
Askyid Village and Duoca Village are located in Askyid Township in Ruorgai County, Aba Tibetan Autonomous prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. Askyid Village is 9 kilometers from the Duoca Village. Both Askyid Village and Duoca Village are 596 kilometers from Chengdu, the capital city of Sichuan Province, China.

Population
There are approximately 370 households and 3,740 people in these two villages. There are 2690 people in Askyid Village, of which 880 men, 950 women and 860 children. Among them, the oldest man is 79 years old and the oldest woman is 86 years old. There are 1050 people in Duoca Village. There are 350 men, 380 women and 320 children. Among those people the oldest woman is 92 years old and the oldest man is 85 years old.

Education
Most of Askyid’s and Douca’s villagers are poorly educated. About 86% of them are illiterate. In Askyid Village, 77 students out of 520 school-aged children are attending school. There are 57 students in primary school (37 boys and 20 girls), 12 students in middle school (8 boys and 4 girls), and 6 students in high school (2 girls and 4 boys). Also there are 2 students in university, both of them are boys.

In Duoca Village there are 38 students out of 210 school-aged children. There are 30 students in primary school (18 boys and 12 girls). In middle school there are 8 students (4 girls and 4 boys). There are no students in high school or in the university.

Cash income
On average, cash income at Askyid Village is between 1,500rmb and 1,600rmb a year. It is a nomadic area and on average each year a family needs to spend 900rmb to buy grain, rice, wheat and oil. Also every family, on average, needs to spend between 350 and 400rmb a year to buy clothes and medicine for the members of the family. Usually there are 10 or 11 members in each family. In Askyid Village each family has an average of 45 and 55 yaks, 3 horses, and 15 sheep. Each family has to pay money to the government for their livestock every year according to the numbers of the livestock that they have. Approximately, each year a family pays 150rmb to the government for those animals.

Since last year, the Chinese government passed a law to provide free education for primary school, but still each student needs to pay around 100 rmb for their bedroom expenses in spring, because in spring, summer, and autumn most of students’ families have to move to the grassland for herding. Therefore, they have to stay at school. As the students get higher education they need to pay high school tuition as well. Generally, each student has to pay about 1,200rmb for a semester of high school tuition. For university students at least each student has to pay 3500rmb each year, not including food. Therefore, each villager in Askyid Village spends more than 1,600rmb a year. Often, villagers will not have enough money for themselves by the end of the year. Askyid Villagers usually earn money by selling butter, cheese and livestock.
In Duoca Village, the average cash income is between 1,250 and 1300rmb a year. It is a nomadic village and on average each year a family needs to spend 900rmb to buy grain, rice, wheat and oil. Also, every family needs on average to spend between 350 and 400rmb a year to buy clothes and medicine for the members of the family. Usually there are 10 or 11 members in each family. In Duoca Village the average family has between 35 to 45 yaks, 2 to 3 horses, and 10 sheep. Villagers earn money from selling livestock, butter and cheese. Each family has to pay also for their livestock every year according to the numbers of the livestock. Approximately, every year each family in Duoca Village pays 140rmb to the government for those animals. Therefore, villagers in Duoca Village spend around 1,600rmb in a year.

Tax
Each year, Duoca and Askyid Villagers have to pay 2rmb for one yak, 1rmb for each sheep and 5rmb for one horse.

Agriculture
Because of the cold weather, there is no agriculture in these villages. All the villagers are nomads. The average elevation in Askyid Village and Duoca Village is above 3,500 kilometers.

Herding
In Askyid Village, on average, each family has between 45 and 55 yaks, 3 horses, and 15 sheep. Local villagers earn money from selling livestock, butter and cheese. A family can earn between 1,500 and 1,600rmb per year. In Duoca Village the average family has between 35 and 45 yaks, 2 to 3 horses, and 10 sheep. They also earn money from selling livestock, butter and cheese. Each family can earn between 1,250 and 1,300rmb per year.

Weather
The weather in Ruorgai County is usually cold. Winter is very cold and long. The livestock is likely to die because the pasture is covered with heavy snows. In the months of July and August, because of the hot weather, shallow waters dry up faster near Duoca Village. Therefore, women have to walk about 6 kilometers to take water for people; however this is just one of many tasks that women have to bear. Sometimes women have to go herd the livestock 20 kilometers away where there is plenty of water for them. It usually takes more than five hours to herd livestock there.

Project Goals

The overarching goals of the project are to improve villagers’ living conditions, reduce the heavy burden on women, and increase girls’ school attendance.

The immediate goal of this project is to buy 278 solar cookers for Askyid Village and Duoca Village. Of the 278 households benefited from this project, 140 are from Askyid Village and 130from Duocan Village.

The problem the villagers face today can be summarized as follows

Women’s Burden
Women in these communities have a heavy workload on them. They not only have to take care of the housework but they are also responsible for making fuel, which is made out of dried yak dung. Making fuel is a time-consuming and physically demanding process; women get up as early as 5am to carry yak dung for about 1 kilometer to the top of a mountain where they leave the yak dung to dry. Some other times, women travel long distances to the pastures where they can collect yank dung. In the summer apart from making fuel, women also need to milk yaks, herd livestock, cook, fetch water, and take care of the children. In the winter women mainly need to spin yak hair and sheep wool for making black tents and ropes.

Low score on the exams
The students are of great help for families because they help to collect fuel and cook food. Often, students help to collect fuel after school, so they do not have time to do homework or prepare for the next class. Thus, they do not hand in their homework on time, causing their grades to go down. In the spring, summer and autumn some of the students are taken out of the school to gather dung in the pasture with their parents. These students only have wintertime to attend school, as result their scores get lower and lower.

Health problems
Using yak and sheep dung to cook has very bad effects on people’s throats and lungs. As time passes people realize that burning dung has bad effects on their bodies. Especially for women because they’ve cooked for so long that they are likely to get a disease related to lung or throat.

Benefits

Reduce Women’s Burden
If we had solar cookers it could save women about 35 hours of time per week. Firstly, women wouldn’t need to get up as early as usual to spend more than 5 hours carrying yak dung to the top of the mountain every morning. Secondly, if they had solar cookers, it could reduce the 2 hours a day that women spend laying the fuel under the sun and carrying the fuel into the house. The most important thing is that children could have a chance to go to school; especially the girls would have more chance to attend school and receive an education.

Often parents in the village take away their children in the summer and autumn to help make fuel, so if they have solar cookers then children may have more time to attend school. Then girls may have more chances to stay in the village and go to school. The families that have solar cookers will only have to collect half as much fuel during winter and almost none in summer.

Help students to improve scores on the exam
The students’ score may improve if their families have solar cookers. Then the time that students spend collecting fuel will be greatly reduced. They can use the time to do homework and review for the next class in order to better understand the material. Also, those students who were taken away by parents would have more time to attend class. Thus, through the use of solar cookers, it may help the student’s scores to be improved, because they have more time to study and review.

Improve health
This project may also help reduce the prevalence of lung related diseases, caused by burning dung. It could reduce indoor pollution, which is so harmful to women’s health. If we get solar cookers then it may help reduce the time women spend cooking inside the house, and instead they can spend that time cooking outside. Women who have cooked with dung for a long time are more likely to get a disease caused by smoke. Since there is no smoke with solar cookers, it will significantly reduce the number of women getting a lung or throat related disease.

Gender Equality
In both Askyid and Duoca Village, collecting fuel is the duty of women and girls alone, regardless of the physical difficulties or time required. Therefore, women and girls have less free time than men and boys. This reduces their opportunity to attend school and do other works such as opening businesses. This project will benefit women the most because cooking is a task assigned especially to them, and so solar cookers will directly benefit their lives. Gathering fuel is also the main burden for women and girls so if they have solar cookers their most laborious task will be greatly reduced.

In addition, the manager of this solar cooker project is a woman and the women of the village will be implementing it. By doing all these things, the project manager also sends an important message to local women and girls that they can also do something very useful and important for their communities.

Governmental support
On January 15th Askyid Village and Duoca Village leaders talked to Askyid Township’s official leaders Wanghong and Suolang duoji, and they are very supportive about the project.

Project Activities

Completed tasks of the project:

1) Hold a meeting to discuss the needs of Askyid Village and Duoca Village and gather related information (Completed).

2) Hold a meeting with local people and choose the 290 poorest families in these two villages based on how many livestock they have and how many people were in their families. Also, how much debt each family had and how many students they supported. How much money they have borrowed from the bank each year, and how many people are able to work in each family. Every single villager agreed that the chosen families were very poor and that they have a right to get the solar cookers. (This step has already been completed)

3) Call the company (Dahejia) and ask about the price of the solar cookers. (Completed)

4) Write project proposal (completed)

Implementation Plan

5) Funds are received.

6) Collect local contribution from the families who will get the solar cookers.

7) Solar cookers will be purchase by two of Askyid Village and Duoca Village’s leaders and the manager of this project. The two leaders are Solang Duoji and Luozi.

8) Hold a meeting with the local people to discuss project implementation

9) We will buy the Solar Cookers from the Da He Jia Solar Cooker Factory in Gansu Province. Also this factory will send some of the skilled workers to Askyid and Duoca Village to show the villagers how to use the solar cookers appropriately.

10) Interview local people and take photos (Women, men and children)

11) Write final report and submit it to the donor with receipts and photos.

Detail Budget

Item Price per item in
RMB
Number of items Donor
Contribution
in RMB
Local
Contribu
tion
in RMB
Other resource (Shem ) in RMB Total cost in RMB
Solar cooker(including transportation) 180 278 36,140 13,900 0 50,040
Management payment     0 0 500 500
Management expenses     200 100 0 300
Total cost     36,340 14,000 500 50,840

The donor would pay 130 RMB for one solar cooker and each family will pay 50 RMB for one solar cooker.

The total project cost: 50,840rmb

The donor contribution: 36,340rmb (5,104 us dollars)

The local contribution: 14,600rmb

Shem Women’s Group: 500rmb

Sustainability of the project
This project is sustainable because families will pay for any repairs or maintenance costs. Also the solar cooker manager had been in contact for a long time with Dahejia factory (the solar cooker manufacturer) and many of the students who did solar cooker projects have bought them from this factory. We also asked the company’s manager to ensure that the quality would be good. Previous experience indicates that the lifetime of a solar cooker is at least 10 years. Moreover, villagers will be taught how to use and take care for their solar cookers. In addition, in 2006 the manager of this project did a Solar Cooker project under the Shambala Connection’s support and also bought the solar cookers from this factory. None of them are broken yet and villagers are taking care of the solar cookers very well.

Additional information (past experience of project manager)
Drolmatso (Delores), the project manager, has done three projects in Askyid Village. One was a Solar cooker project which was funded by the Shambala Connection, the second one, a Solar panel project funded by The British Embassy, and the third one, a secondhand cloth project which was funded by the British Consulate in Shanghai with the help of Dr Kevin Stuart. During the implementation of these projects, some problems arouse, causing time delays and the need to bargain with the company to lower the prices; however, they were all overcame. This became a very valuable experience for me. After finishing this project, a new project proposal is being planned for setting up a library at a primary school in the village.

The map of project location

map.jpg

Project Photos

11.jpg
Her name is Lhamotso, she is thirty-five years old and she accompanied her life to collect the yak dung, milk and herd. She has five sons, and here she is collecting the yak dung, which she spreading on the grassland in order to dry it soon.

look1.jpg
Lhamotso finished milking her family’s yaks and here she is collecting yak dung in her basket as usual, then she has to churn the milk and cook lunch for her family. She has no time to take a rest

bent1.jpg
Doomtso is spreading the yak dung, which she collected from her family’s yak. She takes it back home by carrying it inside that bamboo buckets.

drag1.jpg
Doomtso
is spreading the yak dung with her hands on the grass in order to be dried in the morning. She has four children and she has been doing this work for whole her life.